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---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Thu, 8 Aug 1996 15:44:09 -0400
From: Kirk Winters <Kirk_Winters@ed.gov>
To: Multiple recipients of list <edinfo@inet.ed.gov>
Subject: Condition of Education, 1996

     WHAT IS THE *CONDITION OF EDUCATION* in the United States?

     Each year, the National Center for Education Statistics
     publishes a compilation of statistics to help answer that
     question.  It's called "The Condition of Education, 1996"
     & it was released last week.

     As in the past, this year's report is organized around 60
     *indicators* representing "a consensus of professional
     thinking on the most significant national measures of the
     condition & progress of education to date," says former
     Acting Commissioner of NCES Jeanne Griffith.

     These 60 indicators can help readers find their way through
     the thousands of statistics in this nearly 400-page report.
     They're listed below, along with a few findings.

     The full text is available -- with a full-text search
     capability -- in our Online Library at:

A Few Findings from The Condition of Education, 1996
High school students are taking tougher courses, especially in
math & science.
  o  High school graduates in 1994 were more likely to take
     mathematics courses at the level of algebra I or higher &
     science courses at the level of biology or higher than their
     counterparts in 1982. [Indicator 29]
  o  A larger percentage of 1994 graduates, both male & female,
     earned credit in biology, chemistry & physics than their
     1982 counterparts.  Similar percentages of males & females
     earned credit in biology in both years.  Females were more
     likely to earn credit in chemistry in 1994.  Males were
     consistently more likely to earn credit in physics.
  o  High school students have completed more academic courses in
     recent years.  The proportion of high school graduates
     completing the New Basics curriculum (4 years English, plus
     3 years each of social studies, mathematics & science) rose
     from 14% in 1982 to 51% in 1994. [Indicator 28]
  o  High school students are completing more advanced
     mathematics & science courses.  The proportion of students
     completing a chemistry class rose from 31% in 1982 to 56% in
     1994 & the proportion completing Algebra II rose from 32% to
     59%.  During this same period, the performance of 17-year-
     olds on mathematics & science assessments rose the
     equivalent of one grade level. [Indicators 29, 15 & 16]

College attendance is up.
  o  The percentage of young people enrolled in college grew from
     33% in 1984 to 42% in 1994. [Indicator 8]
  o  More than half  (57%) of 4-year college students seeking a
     bachelor's degree in 1989-90 had graduated by spring 1994.
     Students who started at age 18 were more likely than older
     students to graduate within five years. [Indicator 10]

More high school graduates go to college immediately after high
school, even though college costs continue to rise relative to
family income.
o    Between 1973 & 1994, the proportion of high school graduates
     going directly to college increased from 47% to 62%.  The
     proportion of students choosing to enroll in both 2-year &
     4-year colleges was greater in 1994 than in 1973 (21%
     compared to 15% for 2-year colleges & 41% compared to 32%
     for 4-year colleges). [Indicator 7]
o    Between 1980 & 1994, tuition, room & board at public
     institutions increased from 10% to 14% of median family
     income.  This increase was larger for low-income families
     than for high income families.  Over the same period,
     tuition, room & board at private institutions rose from 22%
     to 39% of family median income. [Indicator 12]

Conditions facing schools are changing.
  o  First, schools are facing a period of rising enrollments
     after a long period of decline. [Indicator 38]
  o  Second, many more disabled students, particularly those with
     learning disabilities, are receiving special services.
     [Indicator 43].
  o  Third, many more students speak a language other than
     English at home & have difficulty speaking English, a likely
     indication that even more students may have difficulty
     reading & writing English.
  o  Fourth, many children live in poverty (21% or 15.3 million),
     & these children typically live in neighborhoods & attend
     school together. [Indicator 44]
  o  Fifth, an increasing percentage of public school teachers
     are reporting that physical conflicts & weapons possession
     are moderate or serious problems in their schools.

60 Indicators from The Condition of Education, 1996
A. Access, Participation, & Progress
    1. School enrollment rates, by age
    2. Preprimary education enrollment
    3. Age of first-graders
    4. School choice
    5. Dropout rates
    6. Dropouts who complete high school within 2 years of
       scheduled graduation
    7. Immediate transition from high school to college
    8. Racial & ethnic differences in participation in higher ed.
    9. Community college outcomes
    10. Persistence toward a bachelor's degree
    11. Time to complete a bachelor's degree
    12. College costs & family income
    13. Net cost of attending postsecondary education
    14. Participation in adult education

Achievement, Attainment, & Curriculum
    15. Trends in math proficiency of 9-, 13-, & 17-year-olds
    16. Trends in science proficiency of 9-, 13-, & 17-year-olds
    17. Average reading proficiency of 4th-, 8th-, & 12th-graders
    18. Average U.S. history proficiency of 4th-, 8th-, & 12th-
    19. Average geography proficiency of 4th-, 8th-, & 12th-
    20. International comparisons of reading literacy
    21. International comparisons of adult literacy
    22. Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores
    23. International comparisons of mathematics performance
    24. International comparisons of science performance
    25. Educational attainment
    26. Postsecondary education enrollments & completions of
        the class of 1982
    27. International comparisons of ed'l attainment, by age
    28. High school course taking in the core subject areas
    29. High school mathematics & science course-taking patterns

C. Economic & Other Outcomes of Education
    30. Transition from high school to work
    31. Transition from college to work
    32. Employment of young adults
    33. Weeks & hours worked, by educational attainment
    34. Annual earnings of young adults
    35. Starting salaries of college graduates
    36. Welfare participation, by educational attainment
    37. Voting behavior, by educational attainment

D. Size, Growth, & Output of Educational Institutions
    38. Elementary & secondary school enrollment
    39. College & university enrollment, by type & control of
    40. Degrees conferred, by level
    41. Bachelor's degrees conferred, by field of study

E. Climate, Classrooms, & Diversity in Educational Institutions
    42. Student absenteeism & tardiness
    43. Education of students with disabilities
    44. Children in poverty
    45. Racial & ethnic distribution of college students
    46. Community service performed by high school seniors
    47. Teachers' participation in school decision making
    48. Teaching workload of full-time teachers
    49. Teaching workload of full-time postsecondary faculty
    50. Student exposure to faculty at institutions of higher ed.

F. Human & Financial Resources of Educational Institutions
    51. National index of public effort to fund education
    52. International comparisons of public expenditures for
    53. Higher education expenditures per student
    54. Higher education revenues per student
    55. Salaries of teachers
    56. Sources of supply of newly hired teachers
    57. Education & certification of secondary teachers
    58. Literacy of teachers
    59. Teachers' participation in professional development
    60. Salaries & total earnings of full-time postsec. faculty

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       Kirk Winters
       Office of the Under Secretary
       U.S. Department of Education

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