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One more time.  I didn't realize I could not send attachments.  This is in
Word.  If anyone cannot open it, or if you want the section call "Formation
Competencies", which is supposed to be in a table, respond to me at and I will send it as an attachment from there.

Sorry for the inconvenience.

Sandy Carson
Regis JHS
Aurora, CO

This report was just issued: Understanding University Success Go to this

It is about 80 pages long but it has everything you need to back you up.
Or if you go to this URL you will be able to either download or purchase the

I will really be looking forward to your responses.  As a matter of fact - I
would like to include the responses on a web page that I use with my tudents.
When I am done, I will post the web address so that everyone can see.  The
page is essentially about the serious consequences of plagiarism - but I will
add a section on college research expectations.  I use the page mainly with
uperclassmen.  Hopefully they will listen!

Anyway - aditionally to that, I have been using a worls cited rubric that
grades students based on the quality of their sources as well as MLA format.
I use it with major research reports in 9th grade and 12th grade.  I grade
them myself. One comes at the beginning of the year and the other at the end.
I have about 125 students in each grade level - so it is not hard for me to
keep up with. I would love to see the teachers start using it - but I think I
will have to invent a much less complex rubric for them to add it on to all
the rest they have to do.  Anyway - if you would like to have a look at both
these web pages I am referring to - here are the addresses:
The plagiarism site is:
The works cited rubric can be found at:


When they get to college, they need to know how to use a card catalog.  When I
went, I was always used to using keywords in the card catalog.  I had no idea
about the LC subject headings. Not knowing about them caused me a lot of
stress, thinking there was nothing out there for me! I also think that
understanding how to do more than a keyword search in a database or search
engine is helpful.  Knowing they can refine a search by AND, OR, or with
the "" features can save them a lot of time. Also, my kids don't even seem to
understand what a database IS much less how to use it or why it is better than
using Yahoo!  We try, to explain it, and force them to use them.  If they
listen and use them, they are usually pleased and finally get what it is.
But, I can't force them to click on the Ebsco icon, you know?  I can lead them
to the water....   I think the most important thing that they need to know is
that the librarian will not find it for you, open to the page and explain how
to use the photocopier, holding your hand the entire time.  I am very hands on
with freshman research.  As the years progress I become more hands-off and
pretty much expect them to do for themselves until they hit a roadblock. I
walk around, look at their computer screens and make some suggestions, but I
don't help unless they help themselves.
With the younger ones I push more.  After that, I pretty much figure it is
their funeral if they sit there and do nothing when their class is there.

Necessary Research Skills for Success in College.

•       online catalog use
•       database use
•       reference materials
•       documenting sources, why and how
•       web search skills – evaluating

Top 10 skills for success in college

10.     explain classification systems
9.      choosing relevant information by critical thinking – brainstorming
8.      good search strategies
7.      all information is not on computers
6.      all sources are not equal – recognize bias, evaluate, balance
5.      citations –  how to read, why
4.      difference between catalogs and indexes
3.      research process takes time (no instant gratification!)
2.      everything is NOT on the internet
1.      always ask for HELP!

Each student should learn these skills :

1.      Identify the need for specific information. e.g.  brainstorming with
paper and pencil before searching
2.      Focus on appropriate resources.
3.      Gather a wide variety of information, starting with general and
working to specific
4.      Analyse information for accuracy and relevance and bias.
5.      Interpret information.  Summarize or paraphrase. Logically organize.
6.      Present assignment
7.      Evaluate product. Determine how well the project was resolved; what
new skills were gained.

Librarians and Teachers collaboratively instruct students in the use of these
Research Resources :

•       Search Athena, the library catalog
using keyword, author, title and subject

•       Other library catalogs – Houston Public Library, etc.

•       Access online databases
ProQuest – periodicals & newspapers
Galenet products –
InfoTrac – selected encyclopedias, maps, periodicals, newspapers and
reference books
Student Resource Center (literature)
Exploring Poetry
Exploring Shakespeare

•       Reference book use

•       Browsing  books on the shelves. Using list of contents and indexes.

•       Citing Sources – the how and why of bibliographic citation.
      Including copyright and plagiarism issues. Summary writing etc.

•       Internet searching and evaluating sites for authenticity, relevance
and bias        .


You might want to check out an article I did on that subject a little while

There was a fairly recent issue of Knowledge Quest that addressed your
question in the whole issue.  IT was Great!  But I can't seem to find which
month.  I am sure someone on list will know.


The April 2002 issue of Knowledge Quest, the journal for AASL focused on
bridging between high school and college information literacy requirements.
Also, I distributed to my department chairs an article from November 2002
School Library journal about a program Joyce Valenza has instituted at her
high school.

CUSD students will learn how to use information throughout their school years.

                          I=Introduce                       R=Reinforce,
Review                 M=Master
COMPETENCY      K-5     3-5     6-8     9-12
1.  Student distinguishes the types of information sources: books, magazines
and/or journals, websites       I               R       M
2.  Student responsibly utilizes technology (CD Rom, Internet) to find
information     I               R       M
3.  Student uses online public access catalogs (OPAC)   I               R
4.  Student recognizes he/she can’t know everything, but can know what
resource to use (Books, Encyclopedias, Magazines, Newspapers, Indices,
Internet)               I       R       M
5.  Student will not plagiarize from ANY source         I       R       M
6.  Student shows how s/he uses the information in a variety of end products
(Report, Powerpoint, Video, Drama, Music)       I       R       M       M
7.  Student has the ability:
               to organize information logically ………………. K-5
               to organize and synthesize information …………6-8
               to organize, synthesize, apply information, and
                   evaluate the end product in a logical form ….. 9-12

8.  Student can identify his/her own needs for information (e.g. personal,
school assignment)              I       R       M
9.  Student formulates appropriate research questions           I       R
10.  Student knows the structure of information according to what s/he is
looking for (Headings, Title page, Website)     I       R       M
11.  Student distinguishes between  thesis and  topic   I-topic         I-
thesis  R 9
M 10-12
12.  Student identifies parts of a book and knows the purpose of each (e.g.
Title Page, Index)      I               M       M
13.  Student knows how to judge the quality of information (Accuracy, Depth)
                I       R       R 9-10  M 11-12
14.  Student knows how to do key word and Boolean searching             I
        M       M
15.  Student knows library terminology and jargon       I               R
16.  Student knows the limits & potentials of available sources I
        R       M
17.  Student understands MLA bibliographic citation
      Works Cited (4-12)  Parenthetical References (9-12)               I
        R       M
18.  Student knows the importance of offline research prior to online research
                I       R       M
19.  Student recognizes there is a system to learn about each library’s
organization    I       R       M       M
20.  Student knows how to write a research paper                I       R
21.  Student is able to take notes from printed materials               I
        R       M
22.  Student can distinguish facts from opinion         I       R       M
23.  Student uses and understands the Big 6 process     I               M


So many of us are having the same problem.  The Internet has made it too
easy for our students - they don't know how to do "real" research.  I was so
concerned about this problem that I contacted college librarians in my area
to see what we could do about it. Every one of them e-mailed me back with
suggestions. I also attended a workshop at the Pennsylvania School
Librarians Association Conference last week on "What Information Literacy
Skills Will Freshmen Need When They Enter University" presented by Dr. Doug
Cook, Shippensburg University, PA.

Most college librarians agree that to prepare for college, students need to
know how to:

        Find materials using an online card catalog
        Find articles using online databases
outline, gather, read, and summarize (without plagiarizing)scholarly sources
        find an article from a citation
        be able to cite properly
        use scholarly books for research, not encyclopedias (not even
        subject encyclopedias)
        use scholarly periodicals, not Time
        compile an annotated bibliography
        write a 5-10 page (or longer) research paper
        submit work by e-mail

In addition, Dr. Cook encouraged use of online databases such as EBSCO.

Articles you can refer to:
Carlson, Scott.  "New Allies in the Fight Against Research by Googling."
Chronicle of Higher Education.  March 21, 2003.
Cahoy, Ellysa Stern. "Will your students be ready for college?"  Knowledge
Quest.  March 1, 2002.


Can't help you with your question because I am at a primary school in
Australia, but I think it is an excellent question!  Strongly agree with you
that it is the process not the product that is important.  Perhaps some of
the ammunition could include articles about Info Lit that would be available
from your databases or Jamie McKenzie's stuff from or even
how the amount of information is expanding


Sandy apparently the latest thing in plagiarizing papers is to get papers
from German sites and have Google or whatever translate it into English.
Teachers here heard kids discussing this in the hall ( or maybe they are
translating Eng to German and back to English again.) This might explain
one paper ( of the four I've looked at in the last few days which were
utterly and completely lifted from resources on the web. If they put even
half the effort into doing some actual research, they might even become
interested in their subject. We had two papers ( not sure if this was
bf/gf or not) The original printed out to 13 pages and bewteen the two
they used 11 pages- sort of divided the paper up but both used the same
last paragraph. ( This is a small school , only one Sr English teacher!
The sources were obviously ones that they couldn't find here although the
young man did actually list the original in his bibliography!  The girl's
paper had some few words changed but it looked like it was done either
with a thesaurus or prehaps the translating site. The new choices
didn't always fit. My favorite was this - the study used three national
databases  - changed to--the study used three masses of information.
Anybody know how big a mass is? It would be funny if it wasn't so sad.
The teacher has a video that explains what plagiarism is, how to cite
sources etc. but it just doesn't seem to sink in.

Oh, baby, have you hit my target zone.  I have AP teachers that don't even
require a bibliography!!  They just ignore blatant plagiarism.  I tried to
get it included into our SIP plan, but was hot down.  I could go on and on.
I will look for your hit, but would hate to miss it, so PLEASE send me info
you receive. Have a good weekend.


I have a rather unique job that puts me half a day in an elementary school and
half in a college library.  It brings some insights that may help.  In my
college, Wartburg, librarians work closely with professors to prepare students
for research papers.  I would say not to worry about specific tools like EBSCO
because they seem to change and students pick up pretty fast on how to use
them anyway. Our librarians work with classes to educate them on what
resources they will need.  What the students need to understand is the basic
questions that need to be asked for them to complete the assignment.  Next,
how to approach finding solutions to those questions. Often the biggest hurdle
is understanding that they need to broaden (or narrow) their thinking.  I know
this is much harder to teach than how to use particular tools, but really much
more important in the long run.  It's the problem we most often encounter.
I'm not sure that makes sense but hope it helps some.

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